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Wideband slot array antenna

A low-cost, easy-to-fabricate, wideband and high-gain dual-polarized array antenna employing an innovative microstrip slot patch antenna element is designed and fabricated. Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 11, {, A WIDEBAND SLOTTED WAVEGUIDE ANTENNA ARRAY FOR SAR . A Wideband Rectangular-slot Microstrip Array Antenna for Wireless Applications. Obeng Kwakye Kingsford Sarkodie. It also has a higher bandwidth than [8] and [9] who.

International Journal of Antennas and Propagation

To date, numerous SIW-based slot antennas have been reported in the literature [ 2 — 11 ]. In this study, the feed network for the array also adopts a SIW power divider with a radial configuration to improve radiation efficiency and to enable easy fabrication. Therefore, each element was measured in receive mode, superimposing stationary element patterns of individual element patterns for each of the 64 array elements. To provide a match, the transformer characteristic impedance should be , where is the characteristic impedance of the input transmission line and is the input impedance of the antenna. Another feature of this design is that the slot-line connects to the slot-line cavity at approximately the center of the cavity, creating symmetry in the cavity fields. Likewise, the gain of the array antenna in different frequencies is demonstrated in Figure 5. Different s3 , , and that affect the reflection coefficient are plotted in Figures 2 b , 2 c , and 2 d.

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US8350773B1 - Ultra-wideband antenna element and array - Google Patents

This Application claims the benefit of U. The invention relates to an antenna element and array, and more particularly, to a Vivaldi-type or flared-notch antenna and array.

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A popular antenna element for ultra-wideband antenna arrays is the Vivaldi aerial antenna , also commonly known as the tapered-slot or flared-notch antenna. As stand-alone antennas, Vivaldi aerials can exhibit ultra-wide bandwidths of operation, where the high frequency range is typically limited by the slot-width near the feed, and low frequency is typically dictated by the width of the overall taper must be approximately at least half a wavelength , with the overall length of the taper in the direction of end-fire radiation typically several wavelengths long.

They function in a slightly different manner when condensed into an array configuration, where the mutual coupling between adjacent elements creates constructive interference to generate radiation. In an array, the element spacing is roughly half a wavelength at the highest frequency, and the low-frequency limit is set by the overall footprint of the array comparable again to roughly half a wavelength at the low frequency.

This assumes an ideal feed. When condensed into an array configuration, another low-frequency limitation is introduced by the limited space for feed circuits. It is difficult to design ultrawideband circuits that can fit in the constricted array element cell. For this reason, it is common to find Vivaldi arrays that can achieve operational bandwidths of 3: Ferrite-tuned feed circuits can potentially achieve high bandwidths, but cannot be used at microwave frequencies and above GHz range.

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Box , Tehran, Iran. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

A low-cost, easy-to-fabricate, wideband and high-gain dual-polarized array antenna employing an innovative microstrip slot patch antenna element is designed and fabricated. The design parameters of the antenna are optimized using commercial softwares Microwave Office and Zeland IE3D to get the suitable -parameters and radiation patterns.

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Finally, the simulation results are compared to the experimental ones and a good agreement is demonstrated. Recently, microstrip patch antennas are one of the most commonly used antenna types due to many advantages such as light weight, low fabrication costs, planar configuration, and capability to integrate with microwave integrated circuits. Thus, the patch antennas are very suitable for various applications such as wireless communication systems, cellular phones, satellite communication systems, and radar systems [ 1 — 6 ].

Due to their inherent features they are found attractive for applications in broadband networks. WiMAX is a standard-based wireless technology for broadband networks providing high data rate communication by using low-cost equipment. The access points in this network are usually built with large physical spacing. Therefore, the high-gain antenna is necessary to execute the long distance transmission with a lower power. WiMAX has three allocated frequency bands called low band 2.

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First slot machine was invented in what year

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Many, however, believe that Charles Fey completed the first slot machine in The original machine was of course much simpler mechanism. It consisted of three spinning reels containing a total of five symbols, Horseshoes, diamonds, spades, hearts and a bell Liberty Bell , from which this machine took its name.

By replacing ten cards with five symbols with three reels instead of five drums, the complexity of reading a winning result was significantly reduced, allowing Fey to develop an effective mechanism of automatic payment.

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Three bells in a row produced the biggest payment. Liberty Bell was a huge success and has created a thriving industry of mass production of gaming machines. Even when the use of these gambling devices, banned in his home country after a few years, Fey still could not meet demand for the game elsewhere.

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The Liberty Bell was so popular that it was copied by many slot machine manufacturers. Thus in , manufacturer Mills from Chicago produced a slot machine the Operator Bell. It contained five drums holding a total of 50 card faces and was based on poker. This machine proved extremely popular and soon many bars in the city had one or more of the machines. They inserted the currency and pulled the lever which turned the drums and the cards they held, while the player hoped a good poker hand.

There was no direct payment mechanism, so a pair of kings might get the player a free beer, whereas a Royal Flush cigars or drinks. The awards were entirely depended on the offers in each local installation.

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